Containing climate change is a very important driver for the deployment of bio-refineries. But it is not the only one.
Urbanization together with an increasing middle class has resulted in heavy air pollution in many mega cities around the world.
Since the 1980’s Brazil has supported the introduction of ethanol/gasoline blends for cars and with the introduction of flex fuel vehicles more recently, effectively reduced air pollution in cities like Sao Paulo and Rio. Next to ethanol and advanced biofuels the use of electric cars and biogas for busses are also solutions being used in several cities.
More and more countries are increasingly dependent on oil and gas imports from countries with sometimes unstable regimes. For some countries this has a substantial impact on their trade deficit. The introduction of the Renewable Fuels Standard in the USA has boosted the production of ethanol and significantly decreased oil imports into the country.
Attracting new investment, job creation and an increased income for farmers in rural areas are other drivers for supporting the deployment of bio-refineries.